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Topic: Biological Theories of Crime PREPARED BY UMAIR 2. Rational Choice Theory: Tough on Crime. ‘‘Genetic and Environmental Factors in Antisocial Behavior Disorders.’’ In, CLONINGER, C. ROBERT; BOHMAN, MICHAEL; and SIGVARDSSON, SOREN. Type I alcoholics were found to have a late onset of alcohol abuse (i.e., after age twenty-five) and did not engage in criminal behavior. For this theory of crime to be plausible, it must make a few simple assumptions about humanity. Within the context of a community sample, Hibbeln and others found that relative to the nonviolent control group, the violent group evidenced significantly lower concentration levels of CSF 5-HIAA. Although the popularity of such earlier biological theories has waned, research has continued, yielding important findings. ‘‘The Genetic of Antisocial Behavior.’’ In, CHRISTIANSEN, KARL ‘‘A Preliminary Study of Criminality among Twins.’’ In, CLONINGER, C. ROBERT, and GOTTESMAN, IRVING. ‘‘Antisocial Behavior and Psychophysiology: A Biosocial Perspective and a Prefrontal Dysfunctional Hypothesis.’’ Edited by D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling, and J. D. Maser. Environmental factors, such as low socioeconomic status and alcoholism in the adoptive parents, were not found to influence the frequency of Type II alcoholism. In Helsinki, our research group reported that second-trimester maternal influenza significantly increased the risk of adult schizophrenia (Mednick et al., 1988) and major affective disorder (Machon and Mednick) in the exposed fetuses. A separate series of adoption studies carried out in Iowa by Cadoret and colleagues (1980, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1995) have supported Crowe’s original findings. Terrie Moffit’s Two-Path theory is one example. Criminals may be more likely to be involved in physical fights than noncriminals, and sustain head injuries as a result. Cross-fostering analyses revealed the emergence of two distinct subtypes of alcoholism that could be differentiated based upon genetic and environmental influences. ‘‘Predisposition to Petty Criminality in Swedish Adoptees. There are many theories that explain the causes of crime. Cadoret and others (1995) reported that a biological background of antisocial problems interacted with adverse environmental conditions, such as the presence of a psychiatric condition in the adoptive family, separation or divorce of the adoptive parents, adoptive parent alcohol or drug abuse, to increase the risk of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent aggressivity. This finding is supportive of the contention that females are faced with more social pressures to remain law-abiding than males and therefore females who violate these social norms may have an added genetic push toward these behaviors. The first adoption study to explore the genetic transmission of criminal behavior was carried out in Iowa by Crowe. The data have been replicated in numerous studies in various countries. Subjects who had committed violent crimes during the 4.5-year follow-up period had lower CSF levels compared to nonrecidivists. ; Mednick et al.). Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. This is how your paper can get an A! Twin and adoption studies lend support to the notion that criminal behavior has important genetic influences. Example. Another epidemiological design that may more cleanly parcel out most environmental effects is the adoption design. Special offer! Second, a high refusal rate of adoptee interviews introduces the possibility that adoptees who consented to be interviewed may be qualitatively different from those who declined. Several characteristics of the Iowa adoption studies carried out by Cadoret and colleagues should be noted. It may also be difficult if not impossible to identify a specific month or trimester associated with the highest risk of negative outcome in cases where the teratogen is present throughout development, or when the long-term effects of the teratogen may linger and have residual effects throughout the period of gestation. Of these 31 pairs, 4 pairs were concordant for convictions (concordance rate = 12.9 percent for half-siblings). Using an unselected sample of 3,586 twin pairs in Denmark, Christiansen reported 52 percent of the monozygotic twins were (probandwise) concordant for criminal behavior whereas only 22 percent of the dizygotic twins were (probandwise) concordant for criminal behavior. Frontal lobe damage may also be attributed to birth or delivery complications, for example. 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Moreover, the study relied on the Danish criminal register to identify cases where the individuals were arrested for property or violent offenses. Whether one desires to become a lawyer, crime scene investigator, law enforcement officer, they will need to understand the different theories of crime. These methods have recently been applied to the study of criminal behavior, lending support to the theory that criminal behavior may be associated with brain dysfunction. This seems to suggest that serotonin dysfunction may play an etiologic role in more severe forms of antisocial behavior, such as violent offending. Recently, an increasing amount of attention has been paid to pinpointing the gestational periods of highest risk for negative outcomes. For example, the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on inhibiting or promoting the expression of the genetic vulnerability to criminality have been examined in two large-scale adoption studies, the Danish and Swedish adoption studies. To our knowledge, no study has been conducted examining pre-morbid measures of brain structure and function among criminals. Criminal behavior results from a complex interplay of social and biological factors. Cloninger and others (1982) and Van Dusen and others (1983) have reported that adoptive parent SES appears to interact with genetic vulnerability for criminality. Evidence for the role of genetic factors in the etiology of criminal behavior carries the assumption that biological factors mediate this relationship. Adoption studies provide a natural experiment to test the existence and strength of inherited predispositions. ‘‘Adult Major Affective Disorder following Prenatal Exposure to an Influenza Epidemic.’’, MEDNICK, SARNOFF; GABRIELLI, WILLIAM F.; and HUTCHINGS, BARRY. It has been hypothesized that females who engage in criminal activity may have a stronger genetic propensity for this type of behavior than males (Sellin). Cross-fostering Analysis of Gene-Environment Interaction.’’, CROWE, RAYMOND ‘‘An Adoption Study of Antisocial Behavior.’’, DALGAARD, OLE, and KRINGLEN, EINAR A. ‘‘CSF Biochemistries, Glucose Metabolism, and Diurnal Activity Rhythms in Alcoholic, Violent Offenders, Fire Setters and Healthy Volunteers.’’. Our research group has also explored the role of prenatal factors in the development of criminal behavior. The biological theory of criminology says that criminals and non-criminals are biologically different. Lombroso’s Biological Theory of Crime Essay 617 Words | 3 Pages. In contrast, there is relatively little evidence about a genetic connection with violent crime. Although these findings are based on a small number of subjects, the Grove findings are congruent with the findings from other twin studies and extend the twin literature by evaluating MZ twins raised in separate environments. III. There were 126 male-male halfsibling pairs placed in separate adoptive homes. Relying on criminal arrest data, Cloninger and Gottesman reanalyzed the twin data collected by Christiansen and grouped subjects as either violent offenders or property offenders. Crime is the most dangerous kind of “a social pathology” deviating from the norm, deviant behavior. Type II alcoholism, in contrast, appears to have a strong genetic component. ‘‘Mental Illness and Criminal Violence.’’, MOFFIT, TEMI ‘‘Parental Mental Disorder and Offspring Criminal Behavior: An Adoption Study.’’. Much attention has recently been paid to the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and negative behavioral outcomes among exposed fetuses. Other, more direct measures of biological functioning, may provide additional information regarding the role of biological factors in the etiology of criminal behavior. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the utility of the gene-environmental model to our understanding of the etiological correlates of criminal behavior. Prenatal nicotine exposure has also been associated with criminal offending. In a classic study, Heston followed up a sample of forty-seven offspring born to schizophrenic mothers and compared them to a group of matched controls from the same orphanage. The present authors are currently investigating the possible genetic link between violence and alcoholism (Tehrani and Mednick, forthcoming). Families with criminal backgrounds, are said to be more likely to produce children with criminal tendencies also, almost as though crime is a gene carried through generations. The recent finding that maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to criminal violence in exposed offspring, along with Rantakallio’s study, suggests the possibility that chemicals contained in cigarette smoke may alter fetal brain neurochemistry. In addition, the combination of genetic and environmental factors, or gene-environment interactions, has also been the subject of investigation. Therefore, it is better to think of ‘biological factors’ rather than theories in explaining crime. In a reanalysis of data from the Swedish Adoption Study, Carey (1993) noted that paternal violence is linked to alcoholism in adopted-away males. For example some primitive traits that were of importance in evolutionary times consisted of gall bladders, pubic hair and appendix. To the extent that the similarity observed in MZ twins is greater than that in DZ twins, genetic influences may be implicated. ‘‘Social Class and Crime in an Adoption Cohort.’’, VIRKKUNEN, MATTI; DE JONG, JUDITH; BARTKO, F.; GOODWIN, FREDRICK; and LINNOILA, MARKKU. More importantly, examination of the CSF does not provide information about the role of specific brain regions. As both Volavka and Hodgins suggest, delusional paranoid individuals are characterized by elevated levels of violent behavior. The use of twin studies to test questions of heritablilty are limited in that it is a rare occurrence for the twins to be reared in separate environments. One of the major strengths of the study was that maternal prenatal smoking was assessed through interviews during the pregnancy as opposed to retrospectively. Social factors are a reflection of environmental sources of influence, such as socioeconomic status. ‘‘Inheritance of Alcohol Abuse.’’, CLONINGER, C. ROBERT; CHRISTIANSEN, KARL; REICH, THOMAS; and GOTTESMAN, IRVING I. Accordingly, several adoption studies have noted significant interactive effects when environmental variables are also taken into account. LEARNING OUTLINE: The • Defi The • Descr 3. The twin design, as discussed earlier, is limited in that the assumption of equal environments is often violated. In a separate series of adoption studies carried out by Cadoret and colleagues, evidence for the importance of gene-environment interactions in the development of antisocial problems in adoptees has been presented. This literature has been thoroughly reviewed by Raine. Fifteen pairs had at least one member of the sibship sustain a criminal conviction; of these 15 pairs, 3 pairs were concordant for convictions (concordance rate = 20 percent for full siblings). In The Criminal Brain, well-known criminologist Nicole Rafter traces the sometimes violent history of these criminological theories and provides an introduction to current biological theories of crime, or biocriminology, with predictions of how these theories are likely to develop in the future. They found that adopted-away sons had an elevated risk of having a court conviction if their biological parent, rather than their adoptive parent, had one or more court convictions. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. In an Iowan adoption study (n = 246 male and female adoptees), Cadoret and Cain found that the presence of alcohol or antisocial symptoms in the biological parents interacted with adverse environmental conditions, such as the presence of alcohol and antisocial problems in the adoptive parents, time spent in foster care, and divorced status of the adoptive parents, to produce a marked increase in the incidence of adolescent antisocial behavior. Both compiling and analyzing the body of scholarship devoted to understanding the criminal brain, this volume serves as a condensed, accessible, and contemporary exploration of biological theories of crime … Heston was primarily interested in determining if adoptedaway offspring were at increased risk of becoming schizophrenic themselves. Epidemiological evidence that genetic factors contribute to criminal behavior come from three sources: family, twin, and adoption studies. Within the context of the Danish Adoption Cohort, we found that alcoholic biological parents were twice as likely to have a violent adopted-away son than nonalcoholic parents. In the past fifteen years, however, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the etiology of criminal behavior may be better understood when genetic and biological factors are also taken into account. Technological advances, such as the use of brain imaging, will undoubtedly provide exciting new data on the biological underpinnings of criminal behavior. A group of control adoptees were matched for age, sex, race, and approximate age at the time of adoption. Such requirements, however, have been met by adoption studies from two Scandinavian countries, Denmark and Sweden. Other disorders in the biological parents may also increase the risk of violent offending in the adopted-away offspring. The field of neuroscience, through the use of brain imaging techniques, has provided illuminating data on the etiology of severe mental disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Twin studies.Twin studies support the contention that a … The importance of gene-environment interactions are illustrated in several adoption studies. These data, obtained from three different countries and in different laboratories, lend support to the notion that criminal behavior appears to have a strong genetic component. The prenatal period presents a nine-month window in which the developing fetus may be exposed to a variety of stressors and agents. The largest adoption study to date was carried out in Denmark by the present authors’ research group (n = 14,427). ‘‘Relationship of Psychobiological Variables to Recidivism in Violent Offenders and Impulsive Fire Setters.’’, VIRKKUNEN, MATTI; EGGERT, MONIKA; RAWLINGS, ROBERT; and LINNOILA, MARKKU. A significant increase in the rate of violent offending is noted only among offspring whose biological parents were severely criminal (typically the biological father) and had been hospitalized one or more times for a psychiatric condition (typically the biological mother). On the basis of these findings, Virkkunen and colleagues propose that low serotonin may be a biological marker specific to impulsive violent offending accompanied by alcoholism. Humans are part of the natural world, just like any other plant or animal, which means humanity is subject to the same biological, genetic, and evolutionary processes as everything else. A review of biochemical studies that have investigated the role of low serotonin concentrations in the emergence of criminal behavior follows. Lombroso’s biological theory of crime: The most vivid example of the biological determinism is the theory of Cesare Lombroso. Third, in two of the Cadoret studies, antisocial status of the adoptees was determined from telephone interviews (1987. This is … Type II alcoholics are typically males with alcohol and criminal registrations. Serotonergic dysregulation appears to be specific to violent offenders who have committed impulsive crimes. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. ‘‘Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Adult Male Criminal Outcomes.’’, CADORET, REMI, and CAIN, COLLEEN. Early Biological theories Many Biological theories are concerned with the concepts of Genetics. Are structural and functional deficits present prior to the onset of criminal behavior, or are these changes in the brain triggered after the individual has begun their criminal career? To date, over 20 studies using these techniques have been published (see Raine, 1996). Introduction of some types of teratogens, such as illegal drugs, alcohol, and nicotine, may represent substances that, regardless of when they are introduced, could potentially be harmful to the exposed fetus. There is some evidence to suggest that genetic and environmental factors may differentially contribute to the risk of criminality for males and females. Despite these issues, it is likely that our understanding of the biological and genetic underpinnings of criminal behavior will be greatly advanced through continued developments in brain imaging research. ‘‘Modeling Genetic and Environmental Influences in the Etiology of Conduct Disorder: A Study of 2,682 Adult Twin Pairs.’’, TEHRANI, JASMINE; and MEDNICK, SARNOFF A. Sex Differences and Validation of the Male Typology.’’, SLUTSKE, WENDY; HEATH, ANDREW C.; DINWIDDIE, S. H.; and MADDEN, PAMELA. Biological theory of crime 1. Due to the highly selective nature of the sample, results must be interpreted cautiously. Serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine), a neurotransmitter produced by the raphe nuclei, is thought to be involved in the modulation of impulsivity. View sample criminology research paper on biological theories of crime. For example, a genotype that confers a low level of the enzyme monoamine oxidase may predispose an individual to ‘‘Genetic-Environmental Interaction in the Genesis of Aggressivity and Conduct Disorders.’’, CAREY, GREGORY. Consequently, serotonergic dysregulation may result in a decreased ability to inhibit certain externalizing behavioral patterns and may reflect a deficit in behavioral inhibition. And Buss is one of the major psychologists associated with that. Biological Theories of Crime. During conception, the male’s sperm carries genetic material to the female’s egg. But why? 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